Photography is the art, science, and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor. Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. The result in an electronic image sensor is an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing.
The result in a photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically developed into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.
Photography has many uses for business, science, manufacturing (e.g. photolithography), art, recreational purposes, and mass communication.
By means of the optical system, more precisely, with the aid of a lens, the light emitted or reflected from the subject enters a light-sensitive material, such as photographic film.
Photo are taken with the camera by manipulating the optical system, i.e. adjusting the aperture and shutter speed (exposure), focus, color filtration, focus distance, exposure compensation, etc. It then allows light or other radiation to enter the film, CCD or CMOS matrix.
These manipulations are interconnected. The amount of light that reaches the sensitive material varies proportionally with the shutter speed, the lens aperture, and the lens focal length, which in turn changes as the lens is focused or the optical zoom (zoom) is made. Several objectively make these changes themselves. Thus, changing one of the parameters of the optical system changes the amount of light that will be allowed to reach the sensitive material.
The shutter speed is measured in seconds.
The aperture is denoted by the “f” number, which is proportional to the focal distance to the aperture diameter. This means that the smaller the “f”, the larger the aperture diameter, the more light-sensitive material will be. The standard aperture scale includes the following row of lines – 1, 1.2, 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, 64, 128, etc. As digital technology evolved, the aperture row was greatly expanded to the expense of intermediate values (eg f / 7.1) and the aperture setting ring disappeared from many digital lenses, its functions being transferred to a single electronic control unit.
Multiple shutter speed and aperture combinations are available for one exposure. For example, f / 8 on 1/125 of a second and f / 4 on 1/500 of a second lens will put the same amount of light into the lens. However, this combination affects the end result. “Depth of field” is affected by aperture. Depth of field determines how far apart the lens will be focused. The smaller the “f”, the more blurred the objects in the background and/or the foreground, but the whole picture will be less sharp. Using larger shutter speeds, moving objects in the image may look “smeared”. This is basically only half of the whole process until the picture is tangible because the end result is also influenced by the approach and method development process.
The projection of the image in the obscure chamber was known since the 15th century. (Leonardo Da Vinci). 16th-18th centuries built in portable obscuration cameras using lenses, mirrors, diaphragms. In short, there were primitive cameras before the photo was opened. The effect of light on different substances was known for a long time, only it was usually misinterpreted (by exposure to air or heat). The sensitivity of silver salts was explained by German scientist Johann Heinrich Schulce in 1727. Several Inventors of the 18th and 19th Century tried to get a picture by placing primitive light-sensitive materials in an obscurant chamber, so after taking a picture, the photography was introduced by the English astronomer Sir John Heshel in 1839. The greatest success was made by Joseph Nisfor Njeps, who in the 19th century saw a great deal. In the 1920s, he got “heliographic” images on plates covered with asphalt, lavender oil and guava.
None of these methods was suitable for practice because the image could be obtained by taking hours of exposure. No more sensitive materials found. The sensitivity of silver salts (not even surpassed in our days) could not be used because there was no possibility of developing a latent image. It was accidentally discovered in 1835 by Nike’s companion Louis Dagger. Photographs are usually associated with August 19, 1839, when French physicist Dominic François Arago reported in a joint meeting of Dago and Nepsa at the Paris Academy of Sciences and the Academy of Arts. Dagerotype quickly spread to all civilized countries due to the wide range of portraits.
In 1841, Villiams Fox Talbot patented a different practice method for obtaining an image – a kalotype (a paper that had been treated with a solution of silver salts produced a negative one from which unlimited copies could be obtained). Kalotipia did not take up much because Dagger took more care of popularizing his method, as well as because these two methods soon replaced better techniques. In 1851, English scientist Frederick Scott Achcher invented the wet collage photographic plates prepared by photographers themselves shortly before shooting. In 1871, an Englishman, Richard Medox, suggested the use of dry photographic plates with gelatin dispersed silver halides. They started to be widely used after some improvements. In 1873, Herman Fogel discovered a method for making photosensitive (sensitized). 1887 American inventor George Eastman suggested the use of a film with a flexible nitrocellulose base, but a few years later mechanized the production of photographic material.
In about 100 years, the light sensitivity of photographic materials increased tens of thousands of times. Development techniques, camera and lens design improved. 19th century At the end of the year, a separate industry, Cinematography, was separated from photography. However, there was still such a problem – the image was as big as the media, so large cameras were needed to get a normal size photo. By the XX century In the 1920s, the film we know today was invented, as well as Oscar Barnak, who built a camera using 35mm film. It gave photography a great simplicity, accessibility and most importantly, mobility. In addition, this century entered a colorful era of photography.
In 1970, the first step towards digital photography was taken. “Bell” has developed the first camera using a CCD matrix. In 1972, Texas Instruments reports the first patent for a camera that does not use photographic film and uses a TV screen as a viewfinder. In 1973, Fairchild Imaging produced the first commercial CCD chip with a resolution of 100 x 100 pixels.
This CCD was used in 1975 by a Kodak camera. It was designed by inventor Steve Sasson. The camera weighed 3.6 kg, was bigger than a toaster and needed 23 seconds to record a 100×100 pixel black and white image on a magnetic tape. An additional 23 seconds was required to have the image displayed on the screen. In 1986, Canon introduced RC-701’s first commercial Still-Video camera with magnetic recording, Minolta introduced Still Video Back to the Minolta 9000 for the SVB-90 (this device was replaced by the camera’s standard aim, making Minolta 9000) from an analog camera to a digital SLR camera. Images were saved on 2-inch floppy disks. In 1987, several models from the Canon RC series followed by digital cameras from Fujifilm (ES-1), Konica (KC-400) and Sony (MVC-A7AF). Chinon also made the CP9-AF – a changeable back for digital photography. In 1988, Nikon followed QV-1000C and in 1991 – Kodak with DCS (Digital Camera System) and Rollei with Digital Scan Pack. From the nineties onwards, digital photography can be seen as fully commercialized.
Digital photography technology has also revolutionized digital art, especially through photomanipulation.
19th century photo history
In Latvia, photography was first introduced in the year of inventing photography techniques – in 1839. In one moment, already in 1840, photography played a greater role than painting. It took less time to take a portrait than to put on an artist. It was also considerably cheaper. The first photographic workshops in Riga, Jelgava and Liepaja are opened by immigrants, mainly Germans, Dutch and French. Mostly portraits are photographed, and rural and urban panoramas are rare. Until the 19th Century In the sixties, the world, and hence in Latvia, is the so-called daguerotic period (the result is not positive but negative).
The first photographer in Latvia, judged by the date of the picture, can be considered Alfons Bērmanis – 1854.g. hosted the Sand Gate Internal Portal. In the 1960s, artists who had lost their clientele and were forced to look for other forms of profit were left in the photo circle, leaving painting as a hobby. They can also be considered as the first Latvian photographers. In the territory of Latvia innovations were introduced simultaneously with the rest of Europe, sometimes they were adopted faster. One of the most popular photographers of the sixties was Lieutenant Kisner (he had his own photo studio «Littlener and Son»). He can also be considered a chronicle of the sixties and eighties of Liepaja. Significant photographers: in Liepaja – Osvald Lange, brothers Gessau, Karl Schulz, L. Meier, E. Jakubovich. Photographers are sometimes painted with watercolors and traded as view cards. At the beginning of the sixties, around 20 workshops were already in Riga – mostly in the Old Town. There are news that there were also some in Daugavpils. Although the number of photographic workshops grew rapidly every year, in 1888, the photograph of the burning of the Liepaja oil factory shows that the photographer is more interested in his huge apparatus than the fire.
With the invention of collodion emulsion, the method of dagerotype was abandoned and the images began to be retouched, rendered align and even transformed. As an unwritten law, photos were only made in one copy, although the technique allowed for an infinite number of photos. That’s why 1860 – 1900 photo people look like dolls. In rural areas, especially in Latgale, the number of photographers is very small and even in Rezekne, Valmiera and other notable cities, photographers are not presented as artisans.
20th-century photo history
You can only start talking about art at the turn of the century, when Martins Bucler, Arthur Dulbe, Janis Rieksts, Janis Sarkangalvis, Andrejs Saulītis, Lūcija Kreicbergs-Alutis, Martins Lapins, Emilija Mergupe, Robert Johansson and Wilson Rice are entering the ranks of photographers. The photo flourished across Europe. Mārtiņš Bucler, a national teacher, can be safely called the teacher of almost all the famous photographers for the next forty years.
Since then, photography has evolved as a genre and has not changed much until the late nineties. Only the two wars that temporarily restricted the activities of photographers can be mentioned as points of reference. After World War II, most of Latvia’s free-time photographers were deported just like any other cultural worker. The culture of salon photography was almost completely destroyed, but it was later tried to restore it. Photographers also felt the impression of censorship – bridges, new strategic buildings – power stations, army objects, and air could not be photographed. Since the 1960s, more and more private cameras have emerged, making home-to-side photography into the hands of a “participant in life”.
Present days photo history
Education for photographers in Latvia can be obtained in several higher education institutions – in Jelgava and Riga – but in the circle of photographers the cinema-photo education acquired in Oslo or Moscow is considered the most serious because it has been developed for several decades. Practice or even courses can be applied to the best known photographers in Latvia.
By the way, Russian photographers are popular with Latvia and regularly hold their plenary sessions here. Russian photographers are not strange to such names as Thuja or Skulte.
Aperture • Depth of field • Circle of confusion • Color temperature • Focus depth • Exposure • Exposure compensation • F-number • Movie format • Movie speed • Focal length • Hyperfocal distance • Measurement mode • Perspective distortion • Photo • Photo printing • Photo process • Photo process • Reciprocity • Red Eye • Viewing Angle • Photo Science • Shutter Speed • Zone System
Aerial photo • Black & White • Commercial • Cloudscape • Documentary • Erotic • Fashion • Fine art • Forensic • Glamor • High speed • Landscape • Nature • Nude photo • Photo journalism • Pornography • Portrait • Post-mortem • Senior • Social documentary • Sports • Still life • Stock • Streets • Vernacular • Underwater • Weddings • Live Nature
A photographer is a person taking photographs using a camera or camera. Professional photographer earns a living with photography. The photographer is an amateur who takes pictures with no money.
The camera’s main tool is the camera. Most popular photo genres: nature, portraits, advertising, sports, weddings, journalism, fashion, art, etc.
More information: www.wikipedia.org